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Michael Frohbergh

Michael Frohbergh, PhD

Associate, Biomedical Engineering Practice
Exponent, Inc.

Office: Exponent, 3440 Market Street, Sutie 600
Phone: 215.594.8840


Dr. Frohbergh’s primary expertise focuses on bone and cartilage tissue engineering, orthopedic biomaterials, in vivo biocompatibility, small animal models for wound healing and cell/molecular biology techniques. He is proficient in biomechanical testing, histology, cell and molecular biology techniques, immunohistochemistry, scaffold fabrication methods, small animal surgery, microscopy and microCT analysis. He has experience with small animal performance analysis, drug and enzyme delivery from polymeric microspheres, and 3D printing for orthopedic implant designs.

Dr. Frohbergh has worked in academic exploratory research and aided in developing a number of projects throughout his career. He developed an electrospun, crosslinked chitosan/hydroxyapatite scaffold for non-load bearing cranial bone. He also developed the rodent osteochondral defect model and protocol used at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mt. Sinai. Prior to joining Exponent, Dr. Frohbergh worked as a postdoctoral fellow at Mt. Sinai in the department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences where he worked on articular cartilage repair using enzymatically treated cells in rodent models. He also worked on rare lysosomal storage disease mechanisms including mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) and Farber disease. He was also involved in helping to develop the Mt. Sinai Institute of Technology (MSIT) and a mentor/assistant for the Design, Technology and Entrepreneurship (DTE) graduate classes. His thesis work was completed at Drexel University. Along with his research, Dr. Frohbergh was a teaching assistant for Tissue Engineering and the Biomaterials laboratory classes for three years, and a mentor for Drexel’s STAR, and Mini-Med summer programs.


  • Frohbergh ME and Lelkes PI. New PCT Patent Appl. No. PCT/US11/55209, filed October 7, 2011 (Claims priority to U.S. Prov’l Appl. No. 61/390,918, filed October 7, 2010). Title: Electrospun Mineralized Chitosan Nanofibers Crosslinked With Genipin For Bone Tissue Engineering.


  • PhD in Biomedical Science, Drexel University, 2012
  • BS in Chemistry and Biochemistry, LaSalle University, 2007

Research Interests

Bone and cartilage tissue engineering, orthopedic biomaterials, in vivo biocompatibility, small animal models for wound healing, and cell/molecular biology techniques


Peer-Reviewed Publications
  • Simonaro CM, Tomatsu S, Sikora T, Kubaski F, Frohbergh M, Guevara JM, Wang RY, Vera M, Kang JL, Smith LJ, Schuchman EH and Haskins ME. Pentosan Polysulfate: Oral Versus Subcutaneous Injection in Mucopolysaccharidosis Type I Dogs.PloS one. 2016; 11 (4): e0153136. Frohbergh ME, Guevara JM, Grelsamer R, Barbe M, He X, Simonaro CM and Schuchman EH. Acid Ceramidase Treatment Enhances the Outcome of Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation in a Rat Osteochondral Defect Model.Osteoarthritis and Cartilage. 2016; 24 (4): 752-62.
  • Frohbergh ME, Katsman A, Mondrinos MJ, Stabler CT, Hankenson KD, Oristaglio JT and Lelkes PI. Osseointegrative Properties of Electrospun Hydroxyapatite-Containing Chitosan Nanofibrous Scaffolds. Tissue Eng Part A. 2015; 21 (5-6): 970-81.
  • Frohbergh M, Ge Y, Mang FL, Karabul N, Solyom A, Lai A, Iatridis J, Schuchman EH and Simonaro CM. Dose Responsive Effects of Subcutaneous Pentosan Polysulfate Injection in Mucopolysaccharidosis Type VI Rats and Comparison to Oral Treatment. PloS one. 2014; 9 (6): e100882.
  • Frohbergh ME, Katsman A, Botta GP, Lazarovici P, Schauer CL, Wegst UG and Lelkes PI. Electrospun Hydroxyapatite- Containing Chitosan Nanofibers Crosslinked with Genipin for Bone Tissue Engineering. Biomaterials. 2012; 33 (36): 9167-78.

Review Articles / Book Chapters

  • Frohbergh ME, He X and Schuchman EH. The Molecular Medicine of Acid Ceramidase. Biol Chem. 2015; 396 (6-7) : 759- 765.
  • Frohbergh ME and Lelkes PI. Biomimetic Scaffolds for Craniofacial Bone Tissue Engineering: Understanding the Role of the Periosteum. Book chapter from A Tissue Regeneration Approach to Bone and Cartilage Engineering, Zreiqat H, Dunstan C and Rosen V, 147 162, 2014.
  • Frohbergh ME, Newman P, Simonaro CM and Zreiqat H. Bone Tissue Engineering Nanomedicine Approach. Encyclopedia of Molecular Cell Biology and Molecular Medicine. 2015; 1: 153-178.

Conference Presentations

  • Schuchman EH, Frohbergh M, Guevara JM, He X, DeAngelis V, Simonaro CM. Cartilage and Bone Disease in a Mouse Model of Farber Lipogranulomatosis and Response to Treatment. Molecular Genetics and Metabolism. 2016; 117 (2): S103.
  • Frohbergh M, Guevara J, Grelsamer R, Scuchman EH and Simonaro CM. Acid Ceramidase Treatment Enhances the Effect of Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation in a Rat Osteochondral Defect Model. International Cartilage Repair Society World Congress. 2015; Panel Speaker.