Hear ye, hear ye! Bradford’s “labor of love” now digitized for all!
By Chrissie Perella
To view all 36 volumes of Bradford's Biographies of Homeopathic Physicians
on Internet Archive, click here.
Dr. Bradford, librarian and former lecturer on the history of medicine at Hahnemann Medical College of Philadelphia, completed his Biographies of Homeopathic Physicians in 1918. His Biographies consist of 36 massive scrapbook volumes, most with well over 300 pages. Inside a volume, you'll find newspaper clippings, correspondence, photographs, notes from transactions of Philadelphia-area medical societies, and excerpts from William Harvey King's History of Homeopathy and its Institutions in America. If you can think of a late 19th- or early 20th-century homeopathic physician (women physicians included), it's likely there's some information about him or her in Bradford's scrapbooks
Thomas Lindsley Bradford was born in New Hampshire on June 6, 1847. He attended Harvard Medical School and then the Homeopathic Medical College of Pennsylvania, where he received his degree in 1869. Until 1877, Bradford practiced in Maine and traveled to various medical institutions in Europe and Great Britain. In 1877, he moved to Philadelphia to practice and was "a prominent figure in homœopathic circles" 1. Bradford published various other works, including the History of The Hahnemann Medical College and Hospital of Philadelphia and A Characteristic Materia Medica. He was lecturer on the history of Medicine at Hahnemann Medical College of Philadelphia from 1895 to 1900, and served as the College's librarian from 1894.
As librarian, Bradford seemed to be protective of his books, and there is no doubt in my mind he was (a bit) strict with the medical students who came in to use his books. The title page in his scrapbook, for example, advises: "These books are not to be taken from the Library Reading Room, and are to be kept under lock and key. Excerpts may be made from them by any responsible person. It is hoped that they may never be mutilated by literary vandals. They represent much labor, but it has been a labor of love." I wonder if these "literary vandals" were the types to scrawl quotes such as "I have measured out my life with coffee spoons" (T.S. Eliot's "Prufrock") in the margins while twirling their mustaches...?
For the past couple weeks, I have been working on making Bradford's Biographies available on Internet Archive (IA). Last time we here at the Legacy Center uploaded a book to IA, we had some...struggles. However, this time, after browsing the forums, we decided to try one poster's suggestion of uploading books as .pdf files, rather than going through the process of file re-naming, zipping, etc., etc. All 36 volumes of the scrapbooks had been shot using our camera several years ago. The master .tiff files were really large, so I began the process of converting all to .jpg files. Unfortunately, converting to .jpg files with a resolution of 12 did not reduce the file size enough to create a PDF (Adobe Acrobat really, really hated them) so, taking advice from my colleague, I tried downgrading to a 10 resolution, at which level the images still looked good. Initially, we were concerned about the image quality because IA makes derivatives from the uploaded file, which in our case had been already been through some downsampling. However, a test upload proved our fears wrong.
The next hurdle to overcome: Acrobat still really, really hated some of the files; well, those over 2 GB. It was back to the drawing board (I mean scouring the internet in desperation) to find a solution. One helpful person posted a blog about their issues with saving large .pdf files (Adobe just won't save if they're over 2 GB): save them as PDF/X. For some reason unbeknownst to me, or perhaps because this format is meant "facilitate graphics properties," it worked! While I got an error message that my PDFs did not convert "properly" to PDF/X, it still saved successfully, and honestly, they look better than the regular .pdf files did. So from .tiff to .jpg to .pdfx, the pages of Bradford's "labor of love" slowly became upload-able, and one step closer to being accessible for anyone, anywhere, at any time.
Uploading the files to IA was the easiest part. There's even a option to save the basic metadata that's input at the time of upload, so I didn't need to enter it 36 times, although the addition of fields such as "contributor" and "rights" had to be added manually after the objects were derived (usually a few hours). And something else to keep in mind: don't try uploading with Mozilla Firefox; use Google Chrome, as Chrome's upload limit is 4 GB as opposed to Firefox's 2 GB. Fortunately, I was smart enough to check up on this before attempting the first upload.
Like Bradford writing his Biographies, uploading them for me "represent[s] much labor, but it has been a labor of love."
To view all 36 volumes of Bradford's Biographies of Homeopathic Physicians on Internet Archive, click here.
1King, William Harvey. History of homoeopathy and its institutions in America; their founders, benefactors, faculties, officers, hospitals, alumni, etc., with a record of achievement of its representatives in the world of medicine. New York, Chicago: The Lewis Publishing Company, 1905.