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Wan Shih

Wan Y. Shih, PhD

Professor
School of Biomedical Engineering, Science and Health Systems

Office: Monell 104
Phone: 215.895.2325
Email: wan.y.shih@drexel.edu
Website: Sensor and Functional Materials Group


Education

  • PhD, Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, 1984 
    Thesis: Theory of Superconducting Arrays in a Magnetic Field
  • BS, Physics, Tsing-Hua University, Hsin-Chu, Taiwan, ROC, 1976 

Research Interests

Piezoelectric microcantilever biosensors development, piezoelectric finger development, quantum dots development, tissue elasticity imaging, and piezoelectric microcantilever force probes.

Bio

Dr. Wan Y. Shih is presently a Professor in the School of Biomedical Engineering, Science and Health System at Drexel University and a Fellow of the National Academy of Inventors. She received her BS in physics from Tsing-Hua University in Taiwan in 1976 and her PhD in Physics from Ohio State University in 1984. She was a Research Scientist in the Materials Institute at Princeton University and a Research Associate Professor in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at Drexel University prior to joining School of Biomedical Engineering at Drexel University in 2006. She is a recipient of the American Ceramic Society 1999 Edward C. Henry Electronics Division Best Paper Award. She became interested in translational biomedical research in ca 2000. Her goal in translational biomedical research has been to combine her physical science and engineering background with medicine to create revolutionary biomedical devices to fulfill unmet needs in medicine. Since 2000, she has amply demonstrated her ability to create original, groundbreaking biomedical technologies such as the groundbreaking piezoelectric finger (PEF) breast cancer detector that detects breast cancers undetectable by Mammography, an intraoperative breast cancer margin assessment tool, and the revolutionary PEPS molecular tests. She has had 109 scientific publications, 36 issued patents and 23 patent applications--including 14 PhD theses, 14 patents/patent applications and more than 50 scientific publications in PEPS and its predecessor, piezoelectric microcantilever sensor (PEMS) alone. In addition to the PEPS technology that Lenima has signed an option agreement with Drexel University, three of her other technologies have also been licensed.

Issued Patents

1. J. Vartuli, D. L. Milius, X. Li, W.-H. Shih, W. Y. Shih, R. K. Prud'homme, and I. A. Aksay, "Multilayer Ceramic Piezoelectric Laminates with Zinc Oxide Conductors," United States Patent No. 6,329,741 issued Dec. 11, 2001.

2. W.-H. Shih, H. Li, M. Schillo, and W. Y. Shih, “Synthesis of Water Soluble Nanocrystalline Quantum Dots and Uses Thereof,” US Patent No. 7,335,345, February 26, 2008.

3. W. Y. Shih, W.-H. Shih, and Z. Shen, “Piezoelectric Cantilever Sensors,” US Patent No. 7,458,265, issued December 2, 2008.

4. W. Y. Shih, W.-H. Shih, A. Markidou, S. Szewczyk, H. Yegingil, “All Electrical Piezoelectric Finger Sensor (PEFS),” US Patent No. 7,497,133, March 3, 2009.

5. W.-H. Shih, H. Li, and W. Y. Shih, “Water Soluble Quantum Dots,” US Patent No. 7,597.870, October 6, 2009.

6. W.-H. Shih, H. Luo, C. Martorano, and W. Y. Shih, “Freestanding Films with Field-Enhanced Piezoelectric Coefficients,” US patent No. 7,744,773, June 29, 2010.

7. W. Y. Shih, W.-H. Shih, A. Markidou, S. Szewczyk, H. Yegingil, “All Electrical Piezoelectric Finger Sensor (PEFS),” US Patent No. 7,779,707, August 24, 2010.

8. W.-H. Shih, W. Y. Shih, and H. Gu, “Method of Making Mixed Metal Oxide Ceramics,” US Patent No. 7,785,527, August 31, 2010.

9. W.-H. Shih, H. Li, and W. Y. Shih, “Water Soluble Nanocrystalline Quantum Dots,” US utility patent No. 7976819, July 12, 2011.

10. W. Y. Shih, W.-H. Shih, Z. Shen, and Q. Zhu, “Piezoelectric Microcantilevers and Uses in Atomic Force Microscopy,” US patent No. 7,992,431, August 9, 2011.

11. W.-H. Shih, H. Yegingil, and W. Y. Shih, “Energy Harvesting Device”, US Patent No. 8,110,964, February 7, 2012.

12. W. Y. Shih, W.-H. Shih, and J. A. Capobianco, “Electrical Insulation of Devices with Thin Layers,” US Patent No. 8,197,757, June 12, 2012.

13. W.-H. Shih, H. Li, and W. Y. Shih, “Lead-free piezoelectric ceramic films and a method for making thereof,” US patent No. 8,241,569, August 14, 2012.

14. W.-H. Shih, H. Yegingil, and W. Y. Shih, “Energy Harvesting Device”, US Patent no. 8,421,313, April 16, 2013.

15. W. Y. Shih and W.-H. Shih, “A Hand-Held Phase-Shift Detector for Sensor Applications,” US patent No. 8,456,150, June 4, 2013.

16. W.-H. Shih, Huiming Gu, W. Y. Shih, “Method of Making Mixed Oxide ceramics,” US patent No. 8,475,706 B2, July 2, 2013.

17. W. Y. Shih and W.-H. Shih, “Specificity and Sensitivity Enhancement in Cantilever Sensing,” US patent No. 8,481,335, July 9, 2013.

18. W.-H. Shih, W. Y. Shih, H. Li, “Synthesis of Water Soluble Non-Toxic Nanocrystalline Quantum Dots and Uses Thereof,” US Patent No. 8,491,818, July 23, 2013.

19. W.-H. Shih, H. Li, and W. Y. Shih, “Lead-free piezoelectric ceramic films and a method for making thereof,” US patent No. 8,496,870, July 30, 2013.

20. W. Y. Shih, W.-H. Shih, A. Markidou, S. Szewczyk, H. Yegingil, “All Electrical Piezoelectric Finger Sensor (PEFS),” US Patent No. 8,549,933, October 8, 2013.

21. W. Y. Shih, W.-H. Shih, H. Yegingil, and A. Brooks, “System and method for evaluating tissue,” US Patent No. 8,562,546, B2, October 22, 2013.

22. W.-H. Shih, W. Y. Shih, and H. Li, “Lead-Free Piezoelectric Ceramic Films and a Method for Making Thereof,” US Patent No. 8,715,575, May 6, 2014.

23. W. Y. Shih, J. Capobianco, and W.-H. Shih, “Determination of Dissociation Constants Using Piezoelectric Microcantilevers,” US Patent No. 8,722,427, May 13, 2014.

24. W. Y. Shih, W.-H. Shih, and Q. Zhu, “Enhanced Detection Sensitivity with Piezoelectric Sensors,” US Patent No. 8,741,663, June 3, 2014.

25. W. Y. Shih, W.-H. Shih, A. Markidou, S. Szewczyk, H. Yegingil, “All Electric Piezoelectric Finger Sensor (PEFS) for Soft Material Stiffness Measurement,” US patent No. 8,826,749. September 9, 2014.

26. W. Y. Shih, W.-H. Shih, H. Yegingil, and A. Brooks, “System and method for evaluating tissue,” US Patent No. US8845555 B2, September 30, 2014.

27. W. Y. Shih, Q. Zhu, Z. Shen, and W.-H. Shih, “Piezoelectric Microcantilevers and Uses in Atomic Force Microscopy,” US Patent No. 8,857,248 B2, October 14, 2014.

29. W.-H. Shih, H. Li, W. Y. Shih, A. Kopek, I. MacDonald, Yu-Chieh Lu, and Ryan O’Malley, “Water-soluble Nanocrystalline Quantum Dots Capable of Near Infrared Emissions,” U.S. Patent No. 8,865,477, October 21, 2014.

30. W. Y. Shih, W.-H. Shih, Z. Shen, J.-P Mcgovern, Q. Zhu, and J. Capobianco, “Piezoelectric Microcantilever Sensors for Biosensing,” US Patent No. 8,927,259 B2, January 6, 2015.

31. W.-H. Shih, H. Luo, C. Martorano, and W. Y. Shih, “Freestanding Films with Field-Enhanced Piezoelectric Coefficients,” US patent No. 9,039,921 B2, May 26, 2015.

32. W. Y. Shih, W.-H. Shih, Z. Shen, J.-P McGovern, Q. Zhu, and J. Capobianco, “Piezoelectric Microcantilever Sensors for Biosensing,” US Patent No. 9,274,082 B2, March 1, 2016.

33. W.-H. Shih, W. Y. Shih, G. Au, A. Brooks, V. K. Swami, “Capped and Conjugated Quantum Dots,” US Patent No. 9, 417,240 B2, August 16, 2016.

34. W.-H. Shih, W. Y. Shih, Z. Shen, H. Li, and X. Gao, “Sol-Gel Precursors and Methods for Making Lead-based Perovskite Films,” US Patent No. 9,431,598 B2, August, 30, 2016.

35. W. Y. Shih, W.-H. Shih, and Q. Zhu, “Enhanced Detection Sensitivity with Piezoelectric Microcantilever Sensors,” US patent No. 9,488,622 B2, November 8, 2016.

36. W. Y. Shih, J-P McGovern, and W.-H. Shih, “Flow-Based Enhancement of Specificity for Label-Free Biochemical Assays,” US patent No. 9,599,612 B2, March 21, 2017.

Publications

Journal Publications

1. K. Pooput, C.-H. Lu, W. Y. Shih, and W. -H. Shih, “Stable Aqueous Wurtzite Kesterite Suspensions by Direct Precipitation with Capping Molecules”, J. Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 17(3), 2185-90 (2017).

2. X. Xu, Y. Chung, A. D. Brooks, W.-H. Shih, and W. Y. Shih, “Development of array piezoelectric fingers towards in vivo breast tumor detection, ” Review of Scientific Instruments, 87, 124301 (2016).

3. C. H. Lu, J. Hu, W. Y. Shih, W.-H. Shih, “Control of morphology, photoluminescence, and stability of colloidal methylammonium lead bromide nanocrystals by oleylamine capping Molecules, ” J. Colloid and Interface Science, 484, 17-23 (2016).

4. W. Wu, * W. -H. Shih, and W. Y. Shih, “Direct observation of binding stress-induced crystalline orientation in Piezoelectric Plate Sensors (PEPS), ” J. Appl. Phys. 119, 124512 (2016).

5. C. E. Kirimli, * W. -H. Shih, and W. Y. Shih, “Amplification-free In Situ KRAS Point Mutation Detection at 60 copies/mL in Urine in a Background of 1000-fold Wild Type, ” Analyst, 141, 1421–1433 (2016).

6. C. -H. Lu, * W. Y. Shih, and W. -H. Shih, “Effects of Pb Treatment on Optical Properties of Aqueous CdSe Quantum Dots, ” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 55(1), 99-106 (2016).

7. C. E. Kirimli, * W. -H. Shih, and W. Y. Shih, “Specific In Situ Hepatitis B Viral Double Mutation (HBVDM) Detection in Urine with 60 copies/ml Analytical Sensitivity in a background of 250-fold Wild Type without DNA Isolation and Amplification, ” Analyst, 140, 1590-1598 (2015).

8. G. H. T. Au, * W. Y. Shih, W.-H. Shih, “Efficient intranuclear gene delivery by CdSe aqueous quantum dots electrostatically-coated with polyethyleneimine, ” Materials Res. Express, 2 (2015) 015401.

9. L. T. Beringer, X. Xu, W. Shih, W.-H. Shih, R. Habas, and C. L. Schauer, “Optimization of an electrospun PVDF-TrFe fiber sensor platform for biological applications, ” Sensors and Actuators A, 222, 293-300 (2015).

10. C. E. Kirimli, * W. -H. Shih, and W. Y. Shih, “DNA Hybridization Detection with 100 zM Sensitivity Using Piezoelectric Plate Sensors with Improved Noise-Reduction Algorithm, ” Analyst, 139(11), 2754-63 (2014).

11. G. H. T. Au, * W. Y. Shih, W.-H. Shih, “Quantitative Assessment of Tn antigen in Breast Tissue Micro-arrays using CdSe Aqueous Quantum Dots, ” Biomaterials, 35(9): 2971-80 (2014).

12. G. H. T. Au, * W. Y. Shih, W.-H. Shih, “High-Conjugation-Efficiency Aqueous CdSe Quantum Dots, ” The Analyst, 138, 7316-7325 (2013).

13. W. Wu, * W. Y. Shih, and W. -H. Shih, “Enhancing Detection Sensitivity of Piezoelectric Plate Sensor by Increasing Transverse Electromechanical Coupling Constant, ” J. Appl. Phys. 114, 064505 (2013).

14. C. E. Kirimli, * W. -H. Shih, and W. Y. Shih, “Temperature- and Flow-Enhanced Detection Specificity of Mutated DNA against Wild Type with Reporter Microspheres, ” The Analyst, 138, 6117-6126 (2013).

15. X. Xu, * C. Gifford-Hollingsworth, R. Sensenig, W.-H. Shih, W. Y. Shih, and A. D. Brooks, “Breast Tumor Detection using Piezoelectric Fingers: First Clinical Report, ” J. Am. Coll. Surg., 216, 1168-73 (2013).

16. Q. Zhu, * W. -H. Shih, and W. Y. Shih, “Enhanced Dimethyl Methylphosphonate (DMMP) Detection Sensitivity by Lead-Magnesium Niobate-Lead-Titanate/Copper Piezoelectric Microcantilever Sensors via Young's Modulus Change, ” Sensors and Actuators B, 182, 147-155 (2013).

17. M. Soylu, * W. -H. Shih; W. Y. Shih, “Insulation by Solution 3-Mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS) Coating: Effect of pH, Water, and MPS Content, ” Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 52, 2590−2597 (2013).

18. W. Wu, * C. Kirimli, W.-H. Shih, and W. Y. Shih, “Real-time, In Situ DNA Hybridization Detection with Attomolar Sensitivity without Amplification Using (Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3) O3) 0.65-(PbTiO3) 0.35 Piezoelectric Plate Sensors, ” Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 43, 391–399 (2013).

19. G. H. T. Au, * W. Y. Shih, W.-H. Shih, L.Mejias, V. K. Swami, K. Wasko, and A. D. Brooks, “Assessing Breast CancerMargins Ex Vivo Using Aqueous Quantum-Dot-Molecular Probes, ” International Journal of Surgical Oncology, 2012:861257 (2012), doi: 10.1155/2012/861257.

20. X. Gao, * W. Y. Shih, and W. -H. Shih, “Flow Energy Harvesting Using Piezoelectric Cantilevers with Cylindrical Extension, ” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 60, 1116 (2013).

21. C. -Yi Hsieh, W.-H. Liu, Y.-F. Chen, W. Y. Shih, X. Gao, and W. -H. Shih “Voltage Generation of Piezoelectric Cantilevers by Laser Heating, ” J. Appl. Phys., 112, 104506 (2012).

22. C. -Yi Hsieh, M.-L. Lu, J.-Y. Chen, Y.-T. Chen, Y.-F. Chen, W. Y. Shih and W. -H. Shih, “Single ZnO nanowire–PZT Optothermal Field Effect Transistors, ” Nanotechnology 23, 355201-5, (2012).

23. C. -Yi Hsieh, Y.-T. Chen, W.-J. Tan and Y. -F. Chen, W. Y. Shih, and W. -H. Shih, “Graphene-Lead Zirconate Titanate Optothermal Field Effect Transistors, ” Apply. Phys. Lett. 100, 113507 (2012).

September 1, 2006-August 31, 2012

24. G. H. T. Au, * W. Y. Shih, S.-J. Tseng and W. -H. Shih, “Aqueous CdPbS quantum dots for near-infrared imaging, ” Nanotechnology, 23, 275601-9 (2012).

25. X. Li, *W. Wu, Y. Chung, W. Y. Shih, W.-H. Shih, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, “80 MHz intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) transducer using PMN-PT free-standing film, ” IEEE Trans. on Ultra., Ferro., and Freq. Control, 58, 2281 – 2288 (2011).

26. J. Capobianco, * W. Y. Shih, G. Adams, and W. -H. Shih, “Label-free Growth Receptor-2 Detection and Dissociation Constant Assessment in Diluted Human Serum Using a Longitudinal Extension Mode of a Piezoelectric Microcantilever Sensor, ” Sensors and Actuators B, 160, 349-356 (2011).

27. L. Loo, W. Wu, W. Y. Shih, W.-H. Shih, H. Borghaei, K. Pourrezaei, G. P. Adams, “A Rapid Method to Regenerate Piezoelectric Microcantilever Sensors (PEMS), ” Sensors, 11, 5520-5528 (2011).

28. H. Li, * M. Li, P. I. Lelkes, W. Y. Shih, W.-H. Shih, “Cytotoxicity tests of water soluble ZnS and CdS quantum dot, ” J. Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, 11, 3543–3551, (2011).

29. L. Loo, J. A. Capobianco, W. Wu, X. Gao, W. Y. Shih, W.-H. Shih, K. Pourrezaei, M. K. Robinson, and Gregory P. Adams, “Highly Sensitive Detection of HER2 Extracellular Domain in the Serum of Breast Cancer Patients by Piezoelectric Microcantilevers, ” Anal. Chem., 83, 3392–3397(2011).

30. X. Gao, * W. Y. Shih, and W. -H. Shih, “Vibration Energy Harvesting Using Piezoelectric Unimorph Cantilevers with Unequal Piezoelectric and Nonpiezoelectric Lengths, ” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 233503 (2010).

31. H. Yegingil, * W. -H. Shih, and W. Y. Shih, “Probing Model Tumor Interfacial Properties Using Piezoelectric Cantilevers, ” Rev. Sci. Instrum., 81, 095104 (2010).

32. J. Capobianco, * W. -H. Shih, J.-H. Leu, C.F. Lo, and W. Y. Shih, “Label Free Detection of White Spot Syndrome Virus Using Lead Magnesium Niobate-Lead Titanate Piezoelectric Microcantilever Sensors, ” Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 26, 964–969 (2010).

33. H. Li, * W. Y. Shih, and W. H. Shih, “Lead-Free Piezoelectric Freestanding Films with Sheet Geometry-Enhanced High-Field Piezoelectric Coefficients, ” J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 93[7], 1852-1855 (2010).

34. Qiang Zhao, W. Y. Shih, Hsiao-Lan Chang, and W. -H. Shih, "Redox Activity and NO Storage Capacity of MnOx-ZrO2 with Enhanced Thermal Stability at Elevated Temperatures." Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 49(4), 1725-1731 (2010).

35. H. Li, * W. Y. Shih, and W. -H. Shih, “Highly Photoluminescent and Stable Aqueous ZnS Quantum Dots, ” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 49, 578–582 (2010).

36. J. -P. McGovern, * W. -H. Shih, Richard Rest, Mitali Purohit, Mark Mattiucci, Kambiz Pourrezaei, Banu Onaral, and W. Y. Shih, “Array PZT/glass piezoelectric microcantilevers for real-time detection of Bacillus anthracis with 10 spores/ml sensitivity and 1/1000 selectivity in bacterial mixtures, ” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 125104 (2009).

37. A. B. Nover, S. Jagtap, W. Anjum, H. Yegingil, W. Y. Shih, W.-H. Shih and A. D Brooks, “Modern Breast Cancer Detection: A Technological Review," International Journal of Biomedical Imaging, Vol. 2009, 902326-902339 (2009).

38. X. Gao, * W. Y. Shih, and W. -H. Shih, “Induced Voltage of Piezoelectric Unimorph Cantilevers of Different Nonpiezoelectric/Piezoelectric Length Ratios, ” Smart Materials and Structures, 18 (2009) 125018.

39. H. Li, * W. Y. Shih, and W. -H. Shih, “Synthesis of Na0.5K0.5NbO3 Piezoelectrics by a Solution Coating Approach, ” Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Technol., 6, 205–215 (2009).

40. Q. Zhao, * W. Y. Shih, and W. -H. Shih, “Effects of Processing Parameters on the Morphology of Precipitated Manganese Oxide Powders, ” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 48, 1490–1494 (2009).

41. Q. Zhu, * W. Y. Shih, and W. -H. Shih, “Enhanced Detection Resonance Frequency Shift of a Piezoelectric Microcantilever Sensor by a DC Bias Electric Field in Humidity Detection, ” Sensors and Actuators, B 138, 1 (2009).

42. C. -Y. Hsieh, * Y. -F. Chen, W. Y. Shih, Q. Zhu, and W. -H. Shih, “Direct Observation of Two-Step Polarization Reversal by an Opposite Field in a Substrate-Free Piezoelectric Thin Sheet, ” Appl. Phys. Lett., 94, 131101 (2009).

43. H. Li, * W. -H. Shih, W. Y. Shih, L. Chen, S.-J. Tseng, and S-C. Tang, “Transfection of Aqueous CdS Quantum Dots Using Polyethylenimine," Nanotechnology, 19, 475101 (2008).

44. W. Y. Shih and W. -H. Shih, ‘Response to “Comment on ‘Mechanism of flexural resonance frequency shift of a piezoelectric microcantilever sensor during humidity detection’, ” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 096102 (2008).

45. W. Y. Shih, Q. Zhu, and W. -H. Shih, “Length and Thickness Dependence of Longitudinal Flexural Resonance Frequency Shifts of a Piezoelectric Microcantilever Sensor due to Young’s Modulus Change, ” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 074503 (2008).

46. J. Capobianco, * W. Y. Shih, W.-H. Shih, Q.-A. Yuan, and G. P. Adams, “Label-free, All-electrical, In-Situ Human Epidermal Growth Receptor-2 Detection, ” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 076101 (2008).

47. Q. Zhu, * W. Y. Shih, and W. -H. Shih, “Mechanism of Flexural Resonance Frequency Shift of a Piezoelectric Microcantilever Sensor during Humidity Detection, ” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 183505 (2008).

48. J. -P. McGovern, * W. Y. Shih, R. Rest, M. Purohit, Y. Pandia, and W. -H. Shih, “Label-Free Flow-Enhanced Specific Detection of Bacillus anthracis Detection Using a Piezoelectric Microcantilever Sensor, ” The Analyst, 132, 649-654 (2008).

49. Q. Zhu, * W. Y. Shih, and W. -H. Shih, “Mechanism of the Flexural Resonance Frequency Shift of a Piezoelectric Microcantilever Sensor in a DC Bias Electric Field, ” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 033503 (2008).

50. H. Li, * W. Y. Shih, and W. -H. Shih, “Stable aqueous ZnS quantum dots using (3-mercaptopropyl) trimethoxysilane as capping molecule, ” Nanotechnology, 18, 495605 (2007).

51. H. Yegingil, * W. Y. Shih, and W. H. Shih, “Probing Bottom-Supported Inclusions in Model Tissues Using Piezoelectric Cantilevers, ” Rev. Sci. Instr., 78, 115101 (2007).

52. H. Luo, * W. Y. Shih, and W. -H. Shih, “Double Precursor Solution Coating approach for Low-Temperature Sintering of [Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3) O3]0.63[PbTiO3]0.37 Solids, ” J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 90, 3825 (2007).

53. Z. Shen, * W. Y. Shih, and W. -H. Shih, “Flexural Vibrations and Resonance of Piezoelectric Cantilevers with a Nonpiezoelectric Extension, ” IEEE Trans. on Ultra. Ferro. Freq. Cont., 54, 2001 (2007).

54. W. -S. Su, * W. Y. Shih, H. Luo, Y.-F. Chen, and W. -H. Shih, “Non-180° Domain Switching in PMN-PT Polycrystalline Sheets at Single Grain Level, ” Appl. Phys. Lett., 91, 112903 (2007).

55. J. -P. McGovern, * W. Y. Shih, and W. -H. Shih, “In-Situ Detection of Bacillus Anthracis Spores Using Fully Submersible, Self-Exciting, Self-Sensing PMN-PT/Sn Piezoelectric Microcantilevers, ” The Analyst, 132, 777-783 (2007).

56. H. Li, * W. Y. Shih, and W. -H. Shih, “Effect of Antimony Concentration on the Crystalline Structure, Dielectric, and Piezoelectric Properties of (Na0.5K0.5) 0.945Li0.055Nb1-xSbxO3 Solid Solutions, ” J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 90, 3070 (2007).

57. J. Capobianco, * W. Y. Shih, and W. -Heng Shih, “3-Mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane as Insulating Coating and Surface for Protein Immobilization for Piezoelectric Microcantilever Sensors, ” Rev. Sci. Instr., 78, 046106 (2007).

58. H. Li, * W. Y. Shih, and W. -H. Shih, “Non-Heavy Metal ZnS Quantum Dots with Bright Blue Photoluminescence by a One-Step Aqueous Synthesis, ” Nanotechnology, 18, 205604 (2007).

59. Q. Zhu, * W. Y. Shih, and W. -H. Shih, “Real-Time, Label-Free, All-Electrical Detection of Salmonella typhimurium Using Lead Titanate Zirconate/Gold-Coated Glass Cantilevers at any Relative Humidity, ” Sensors and Actuators B, 125, 379–388 (2007).

60. Q. Zhu, * W. Y. Shih, and W. -H. Shih, “In-Situ, In-Water Detection of Salmonella typhimurium Using Lead Titanate Zirconate/Gold-Coated Glass Cantilevers at any Dipping Depth, ” Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 22, 3132 (2007).

61. H. Li, * W. Y. Shih, and W. -H. Shih, “Synthesis and Characterization of Biocompatible Aqueous Carboxyl-capped CdS Quantum Dots, ” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 46, 2013 (2007).

62. H. Yegingil, * W. Y. Shih, and W. -H. Shih, “All-Electrical Palpation Shear Modulus and Elastic Modulus Measurement Using a Piezoelectric Cantilever with a Tip, ” J. Appl. Phys., 101, 054510 (2007).

63. W. Y. Shih, * H. Luo, H. Li, C. Martorano, and W. -H. Shih, “Sheet geometry enhanced giant piezoelectric coefficients,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 89, 242913 (2006).

64. J. Capobianco, * W. Y. Shih, and W. -Heng Shih, “Methyltrimethoxysilane-Insulated Piezoelectric Microcantilevers for Direct, All-Electrical Bio-detection in Buffered Aqueous Solutions” Rev. Sci. Instr., 77, 125105 (2006).

Before September 1, 2006

65. Q. Zhao, * Q. Zhu, W. Y. Shih, W.-H. Shih, “Array adsorbent-coated lead zirconate titanate (PZT) /stainless steel cantilevers for dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) detection, ” Sensors and Actuators B 117, 74–79(2006).

66. Z. Shen, * W. Y. Shih, and W. -H. Shih, “Self-Exciting, Self-Sensing PZT/SiO2 Piezoelectric Microcantilever Sensors with Femtogram/Hz Sensitivity, ” Appl. Phys. Lett., 89, 023506 (2006).

67. Z. Shen, * W. Y. Shih and W. -H. Shih, “Mass Detection Sensitivity of Piezoelectric Cantilevers with a Nonpiezoelectric Extension, ” Rev. Sci. Ins., 77, 065101 (2006).

68. S. T. Szewczyk, * W. Y. Shih, and W. -H. Shih, “Palpation-Like Soft Mateials Elastic Modulus Measurement Using Piezoelectric Cantilevers, ” Rev. Sci. Ins., 77, 044302 (2006).

69. A. Markidou, * W. Y. Shih, and W. -H. Shih, “Soft-Materials Elastic and Shear Moduli Measurement Using Piezoelectric Cantilevers, ” Rev. Sci. Ins. 76, 064302 (2005).

70. H. Gu, * W. Y. Shih, and W. -H. Shih, “Low-Temperature Single Step Reactive Sintering of Lead Magnesium Niobate Using Mg(OH) 2-Coated Nb2O5 Powders, ” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 88(6), 1435 (2005).

71. H. Luo, * W. Y. Shih, and W. -H. Shih, “Comparison in the Coating of Mg(OH) 2 on Micron-sized and Nanosize Nb2O5 Particles, ” Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Tech., 1[2], 146-154 (2004).

72. J. W. Yi, * W. Y. Shih, R. Mutharasan, and W. -H. Shih, “In Situ Cell Detection Using Piezoelectric Lead Zirconate Titanate-Stainless Steel Cantilevers, ” J. Appl. Phys., 93, 619 (2003).

73. H. Gu, * W. Y. Shih, and W. -H. Shih, “A Single-Calcination Synthesis of Pyrochlore-Free 0.9PMN-0.1PT and PMN Ceramics by a Coating Method, ” J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 86[2], 217-21 (2003).

74. W. Y. Shih, X. Li, J. Vartuli, D. L. Milius, R. Prud’homme, I. A. Aksay, and W. -H. Shih, "Detection of Water-Ice Transition Using PZT/Brass Transducer," J. Appl. Phys. 92 (1), 106 (2002).

75. X. Li, * W. Y. Shih, J. S. Vartuli, D. L. Milius, I. A. Aksay, and W. -H. Shih, “Effect of a Transverse Tensile Stress on the Electric-Field-Induced Domain Reorientation in Soft PZT: In-Situ XRD Study, ” J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 85 (4): 844 (2002).

76. J. W. Yi, * W. Y. Shih, and W. H. Shih, "Effect of length, width, and mode on the mass detection sensitivity of piezoelectric unimorph cantilevers," J. Appl. Phys. 91 (3), 1680 (2002).

77. C. Y. Yang, * W. Y. Shih, and W. -H. Shih, “Monte Carlo Simulations of the Nucleation and Growth Process of Colloidal Particles, ” Phys. Rev. E., 64, 1403 (2001).

78. C. -Y. Yang, * W. Y. Shih, and W. -H. Shih, “The Effects of Boehmite-Coating Thickness on the Consolidation and Rheological Properties of Boehmite-Coated SiC Suspensions, ” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 84(12), 2834 (2001).

79. X. Li, * J. S. Vartuli, D. L. Milius, I. A. Aksay, W. Y. Shih, and W. -H. Shih, “Electromechanical Properties of a Ceramic d31-Gradient Flextensional Actuator, ” J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 84 (5), 996 (2001).

80. W. Y. Shih, X. Li, H. Gu, W.-H. Shih, and I. A. Aksay, "Simultaneous Liquid Viscosity and Density Determination Using Piezoelectric Unimorph Cantilevers," J. Appl. Phys., 89, 1497 (2001).

81. C. -Y. Yang, * W. Y. Shih, and W. -H. Shih, “Gelation, Consolidation, and Rheological Properties of Boehmite-Coated Silicon Carbide Suspensions, ” J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 83[8], 1879-84 (2000).

82. X. Li, * W. Y. Shih, I. A. Aksay, and W. H. Shih, “Electromechanical Behaviors of PZT/Brass Plate Unimorph, ” J. Am Ceram. Soc., 82(7), 1733-40 (1999).

83. W. Y. Shih, W. H. Shih, I. A. Aksay, “Elastic and Yield Behavior of Strongly Flocculated Colloids, ” J. Am Ceram. Soc. 82, 616 (1999).

84. W. Y. Shih, W. H. Shih, and I. A. Aksay “Scaling Analysis for the Axial Displacement and Pressure of Flextensional Transducers, ” J. Am Ceram. Soc. 80(5) 1073(1997).

85. X. Liu, * W. Y. Shih, and W. H. Shih, “Effects of Copper Coating on the Crystalline Structure of Fine Barium Titanate Particles, ” J. Am Ceram. Soc. 80(11) 2781(1997).

86. W. H. Shih, D. Kisailus D, W. Y. Shih, Y. H. Hu, J. Hughes, “Rheology and Consolidation of Colloidal Alumina-Coated Silicon Nitride Suspensions, ” J. Am Ceram. Soc. 79(5) 1155 (1996).

87. W. Y. Shih, W. H. Shih, I. A. Aksay, “Heteroflocculation in Binary Colloidal Suspensions: Monte Carlo Simulations, ” J. Am Ceram. Soc. 79(10) 2587(1996).

88. B. Keimer, W. Y. Shih, I. A. Aksay, J. W. Lynn, R. W. Erwin, “Vortex Lattice Symmetry And Electronic-Structure In Yba2Cu3O7 – Reply, ” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(7) 1423 (1995).

89. W. Y. Shih. W.-H. Shih, and I. A. Aksay, "Elimination of an Isolate Pore: Effect of Grain Size," J. Mater. Res., 8[4], (1995).

90. W. Y. Shih, W. H. Shih, and I. A. Aksay, "Size Dependence of the Ferroelectric Transition of Small BaTiO3 Paticles: Effect of Depolarization," Phys. Rev. B 50, 15575 (1994).

91. B. Keimer, W. Y. Shih, R. W. Erwin, J. W. Lynn, F. Dogan, and I. A. Aksay, "Vortex lattice Symmetry and Electronic Structure in YBa2Cu3O7," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3459 (1994).

92. B. Keimer, J. W. Lynn, R. W. Erwin, F. Dogan, W. Y. Shih, and I. A. Aksay, "Vortex Structures in YBa2Cu3O7," J. Appl. Phys. 76, 6778 (1994).

93. W. -H. Shih, W. Y. Shih, S. I. Kim, and I. A. Aksay, "Equilibrium-State Density Profiles of Centrifuged Cakes," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 77[2] 540-46 (1994).

94. W. Y. Shih, J. Liu, W.-H. Shih, and I. A. Aksay, "Aggregation of Colloidal Particles With a Finite Interparticle Attraction Energy," J. Stat. Phys. 62, 961 (1991).

95. M. Yasrebi, W. Y. Shih, and I. A. Aksay, "Clustering of Binary Colloidal Suspensions: Experiment", J. Collod and Interf. Sci. 142, 357 (1991).

96. J. Liu, W. Y. Shih, R. Kikuchi, and I. A. Aksay, "On the Clustering of Binary Colloidal Suspensions," J. Collod and Interf. Sci. 142, 369 (1991).

97. W. -H. Shih, W. Y. Shih, S. I. Kim, J. Liu, and I. A. Aksay, "Scaling Behavior of Elastic Properties of Colloidal Gels," Phys. Rev. A 42, 4772 (1990).

98. J. Liu, M. Sarikaya, W. Y. Shih and I. A. Aksay, "Fractal Colloidal Aggregates With Finite Interparticle Interactions: Energy Dependence of the Fractal Dimension", Phys. Rev. A 41, 3206 (1990).

99. W. Y. Shih, W.-H. Shih, and I. A. Aksay, "Density Profile of Semi-Dilute Athermal Polymer Solutions Near a Hard Wall," Macromolecules 23, 3291(1990).

100. W. Y. Shih, W.-H. Shih, and I. A. Aksay, "Stability of Binary Charged Colloidal Crystals," J. Chem. Phys. 90, 4506 (1989).

101. W. Y. Shih, I. A. Aksay and R. Kikuchi, "Reversible Growth Model: Cluster-Cluster Aggregation With Finite Binding Energies," Phys. Rev. A 36, 5015 (1987).

102. W. Y. Shih, I. A. Aksay and R. Kikuchi, "Phase Diagram of Charged Colloidal Particles," J. Chem. Phys. 86, 5127 (1987).

103. W. Y. Shih, J. P. Hirth and D. Stroud, "Twin Boundary Energies and Entropies in Simple Metals," Phys. Rev. B 34, 2895 (1986).

104. W. Y. Shih and D. Stroud, "Heat of Solution of Stressed Metal Alloys and Grain Boundary Segregation: Al1-xZnx," Phys. Rev. B 32, 7779 (1985).

105. W. Y. Shih and D. Stroud, "Melting of Stressed Metal Alloys and Grain Boundary Melting: Al1-xZnx," Phys. Rev. B 32, 7785 (1985).

106. W. Y. Shih and D. Stroud, "Effects of Lattice Structure on 2d Superconducting Arrays in a Magnetic Field," Phys. Rev. B 32, 158 (1985).

107. W. Y. Shih and D. Stroud, "Superconducting Arrays in a Magnetic Field: Effects of Lattice Structure and a Possible Double Transition," Phys. Rev. B 30, 6774 (1984).

108. W. Y. Shih, C. Ebner and D. Stroud, "Frustration and Disorder in Granular Superconductors," Phys. Rev. B 30, 134 (1984).

109. W. Y. Shih and D. Stroud, "Molecular-Field Approximation for Josephson-Coupled Superconducting Arrays in a Magnetic Field, ” Phys. Rev. B 28, 6575 (1983).