We have georeferenced all of the national NETS addresses between 1990 and 2014 (81 million locations documented for the 58 million businesses) to improve consistency and validity throughout the period of interest. Total establishment counts for selected categories for the same timeframe are displayed in Figure 1, which shows an upward trend for some of the categories of interest.
The longitudinal nature of NETS introduces new challenges and possibilities, which we incorporated into our classification and analytic strategies. First, we have improved on georeferencing accuracy and efficiency. Our approach to georeferencing annual addresses for each establishment provided more high quality matches, particularly for older records that NETS had located only by ZIP code. Second, we have developed strategies informed by our earlier work and other research to identify specific types of businesses that can be combined to understand the stability of businesses in a neighborhood and its role associated with “aging in place”.
Third, we developed a strategy to address over-counting of businesses (e.g., where a single known business appeared at the same location in the same year multiple times). Finally, we developed a naming and data documentation system that has facilitated linkage and data sharing with multiple ongoing health studies. The resulting dynamic information on the changing neighborhood environment can be visualized in a variety of formats (e.g. static, animation).
We have linked all of the longitudinal neighborhood data to CHS and REGARDS cohorts. We have characterized 72,246 census tracts in the continental U.S., and circular buffers with respect to sociodemographic, transit, connectivity, land cover, and retail data. Several of the variables of interest draw on multiple data sources as well, such as for a categorization relevant to gentrification, and a continuous measure of walkability. The unified data dictionaries have been updated to allow other investigators to work with linked and derived variables.
We have a growing team of collaborators. If you are interested in collaborating with the RECVD study data, please contact the RECVD Research Coordinator at email@example.com.
The following papers have been published:
Kaufman T.K., Rundle A., Neckerman K.M., Sheehan D.M., Lovasi G.S., Hirsch J.A. Neighborhood Recreation Facilities and Facility Membership are Jointly Associated with Objectively Measured Physical Activity. Journal of Urban Health. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11524-019-00357-1
Rundle, A.G., Chen, Y, Quinn, J.W., Rahai, N., Bartley, K., Mooney, S., Bader, M.D., Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, A., Lovasi, G.S., Neckerman, K.K. Development of a Neighborhood Walkability Index for Studying Neighborhood Physical Activity Contexts in Communities Across the U.S. Over the Past Three Decades. Journal of Urban Health. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11524-019-00370-4
Berger, N., Kaufman, T.K., Bader, M.D., Rundle, A.G., Mooney, S.J., Neckerman, K.M., Lovasi, G.S. Disparities in trajectories of changes in the unhealthy food environment in New York City: a latent class growth analysis, 1990-2010. Social Science & Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2019.112362
Rhodes-Bratton, B., Rundle, A., Lovasi, G.S., Herbstman, J. The relationship between childhood obesity and neighborhood food ecology explored through the context of gentrification in New York City. International Public Health Journal. (Accepted January 2019)
Goh, C.E., Mooney, S.J., Siscovick, D.S., Lemaitre, R.N., Hurvitz, P., Sotoodehnia, N., Kaufman, T.K., Zulaika, G., Lovasi, G.S. Medical facilities in the neighborhood and incidence of sudden cardiac arrest. Resuscitation, 2018. 130: p. 118-123. PMCID: 6245544
We anticipate many of our 30 “in progress” papers will be submitted for conference presentations or for publication in the coming months, describing methods innovations, dynamics of changing neighborhood disparities and individual–level associations between the retail environment and healthy aging.