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Drexel Writing Center Resources

Citation Styles

Because citation styles are designed to meet the needs and purposes of particular disciplines, they have varying conventions for documenting sources and formatting research papers.

Faculty and peer readers may not be well versed in the citation style of your discipline. Below are sources that our readers refer to during appointments and that can offer help while writing and revising your paper.

There are also links that may help answer questions about grammar and mechanics.

MLA - Modern Language Association Style

The Modern Language Association (MLA) style is often used for writing in the humanities, especially in language and literature. MLA style features brief parenthetical citations that correspond to an alphabetical list of works cited at the end of the paper. You can visit the MLA Style Center for more information.

The Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL) also provides helpful information about MLA style and formatting, in-text citations, and the Works Cited page.

APA - American Psychological Association Style

The American Psychological Association (APA) style is often used for writing in the social and behavioral sciences. "The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association" provides guidelines for using punctuation and abbreviations, constructing tables, using headings, presenting statistics and citing references.

The Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL) provides helpful information about APA style formatting, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page.

CMS - The Chicago Manual of Style

The Chicago Manual of Style (CMS) is often used for writing in history, and is also used or has been adapted for some writing in the humanities and sciences. The Chicago Manual of Style provides guidelines for style and usage, documentation of sources, and the preparation of manuscripts for publication.

The Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL) provides an overview of the Chicago Manual of Style.

CSE - The Council of Science Editors Style

The Council of Science Editors (CSE) style is used in the natural sciences. "Scientific Style and Format: The CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers" provides guidelines and information about publishing, style and scientific conventions, and elements of publications (including references).

The University of Wisconsin provides useful information about CSE style.

IEEE - Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Style

The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) style is used in engineering and computer science.

IEEE offers an Author Digital Toolbox with the IEEE Style Manual.

General Writing Resources

The Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL) is a handy online reference for general and specific topics related to writing. They have good resources for disciplinary writing, conducting and using research, and general writing topics that you might find useful in developing your writing: